Responses of Colchicum speciosum L. populations to conventional and nano-fertilizers of nitrogen through changes in morphological and biochemical attributes


  • Masoud BABAIE NAEIJ Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Faculty of Biological Science, Department of Biology, Tehran (IR)
  • Maryam PEYVANDI Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Faculty of Biological Science, Department of Biology, Tehran (IR)
  • Hossein ABBASPOUR Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Faculty of Biological Science, Department of Biology, Tehran (IR)
  • Zahra NOORMOHAMMADI Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Department of Biology, Tehran (IR)
  • Sedighe ARBABIAN Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Faculty of Biological Science, Department of Biology, Tehran (IR)



colchicine, corm size, heat map, nanomaterials, phenolic content


There is an increasing interest in the use of nano-fertilizer as an alternative to traditional fertilizers, in order to increase the secondary metabolites in medicinal plants. The present study was conducted to observe the changes in morphological and biochemical properties of three populations of Colchicum speciosum L., from Iran (Filband, Sangdarka, and Kelerd), upon conventional (1.1 and 2.2 mg L-1) and nano-N (1.5 and 3 mg L-1) fertilizers based on completely randomized design (CRD). The anthocyanin and phenolic contents of leaves and corms were determined with a spectrophotometer and corm colchicine was extracted by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results represented different responses of morphological and biochemical attributes to populations due to their different origins. Filband with higher altitude showed increased leaf area, plant length, corn weight and diameter when treated with N fertilizers. Increased total phenolic component (TPC) in leaves and corm and also leaf total flavonoids component (TFC) were reported in Filband upon N fertilizers. All fertilizers led to decreased leaf anthocyanin when N fertilizers were applied. A noticeable increase in colchicine was obtained in Kelerd and Sangdarka when plants were treated with 1.5 mg L-1   nano-N fertilizer. Heat map analysis of corm anthocyanin, leaf anthocyanin, leaf TPC, leaf TPC, and colchicine amount showed higher variability under the treatments. According to principal component analysis (PCA), corm TPC, leaf TFC, corm TFC, leaf area, and corm weight were specific traits of Kelerd. In conclusion, different responses of morphological and biochemical traits were reported between populations, and N fertilizers exerted diverse effects on these traits. The population from higher altitudes showed higher phenolic content and lower anthocyanin accumulation under conventional and nano-N fertilizers.


Metrics Loading ...


Abd El-Azeim MM, Sherif MA, Hussien MS, Tantawy IAA, Bashandy SO (2020). Impacts of nano-and non-nanofertilizers on potato quality and productivity. Acta Ecologica Sinica 40(5):388-397.

Afshari M, Pazoki A, Sadeghipour O (2021). Foliar‐applied silicon and its nanoparticles stimulate physio‐chemical changes to improve growth, yield and active constituents of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil under different irrigation regimes. Silicon 13:4177-4188.

Al-Fayyad M, Alali F, Alkofahi A, Tell A (2002). Determination of colchicine content in Colchicum hierosolymitanum and Colchicum tunicatum under cultivation. Natural Product Letters 16(6):395-400.

Barker AV, Pilbeam DJ (2015). Handbook of plant nutrition. Chapter II. CRC press, pp 48.

Barros J, Dixon RA (2020). Plant phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyases. Trends in Plant Science 25(1):66-79.

Bayrak S, Sökmen M, Aytac E, Sökmen A (2019). Conventional and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of colchicine from Colchicum speciosum. Industrial Crops and Products 128:80-84.

Çankaya N, Bulduk I, Çolak AM (2019). Extraction, development and validation of HPLC-UV method for rapid and sensitive determination of colchicine from Colchicum autumnale L. bulbs. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 26(2):345-351.

Chang CC, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JC (2002). Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 10(3):178-182.

Chapagain U, Chapagain BP, Nepal S, Manthey M (2021). Impact of disturbances on species diversity and regeneration of Nepalese Sal (Shorea robusta) forests managed under different management regimes. Earth 2(4):826-844.

Cheng X, Wang P, Chen Q, Ma T, Wang R, Gao Y, Fang Y (2022). Enhancement of anthocyanin and chromatic profiles in ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ (Vitis vinifera L.) by foliar nitrogen fertilizer during veraison. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 102(1):383-395.

Cojocaru A, Vlase L, Munteanu N, Stan T, Teliban GC, Burducea M, Stoleru V (2020). Dynamic of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and yield of rhubarb under chemical, organic and biological fertilization. Plants 9(3):355.

Cvelbar Weber N, Koron D, Jakopič J, Veberič R, Hudina M, Baša Česnik H (2021). Influence of nitrogen, calcium and nano-fertilizer on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) fruit inner and outer quality. Agronomy 11(5):997.

Dar RA, Shahnawaz M, Qazi PH (2017). General overview of medicinal plants: A review. The Journal of Phytopharmacology 6(6):349-351.

Fang X, Li Y, Nie J, Wang C, Huang K, Zhang Y, ... Yi Z (2018). Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and planting density on the leaf photosynthetic characteristics, agronomic traits and grain yield in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.). Field Crops Research 219:160-168.

Ferreyra MLF, Serra P, Casati P (2021). Recent advances on the roles of flavonoids as plant protective molecules after UV and high light exposure. Physiologia Plantarum 173(3):736-749.

Gutiérrez-Gamboa G, Garde-Cerdán T, Portu J, Moreno-Simunovic Y, Martínez-Gil AM (2017). Foliar nitrogen application in Cabernet Sauvignon vines: Effects on wine flavonoid and amino acid content. Food Research International 96:46-53.

Hamed ES (2018). Effect of nitrogenous fertilization and spraying with nano-fertilizer on Origanum syriacum L. var. syriacum plants under North Sinai conditions. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 7(4):2902-2907.

Hayat J, Akodad M, Moumen A, Baghour M, Skalli A, Ezrari S, Belmalha S (2020). Phytochemical screening, polyphenols, flavonoids and tannin content, antioxidant activities and FTIR characterization of Marrubium vulgare L. from 2 different localities of Northeast of Morocco. Heliyon 6(11):e05609.

Huczyński A, Rutkowski J, Popiel K, Maj E, Wietrzyk J, Stefańska J, Bartl F (2015). Synthesis, antiproliferative and antibacterial evaluation of C-ring modified colchicine analogues. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 90:296-301.

Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZE, Rahmat A, Abdul Rahman Z (2012). Involvement of nitrogen on flavonoids, glutathione, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities of Malaysian medicinal plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah). International Journal of Molecular Science 13(1):393-408.

Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZE (2011). Effects of nitrogen fertilization on synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in three varieties of kacip fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume). International Journal of Molecular Sciences12:5238-5254.

Imran S, Arif M, Khan A, Khan MA, Shah W, Latif A (2015). Effect of nitrogen levels and plant population on yield and yield components of maize. Advances in Crop Science and Technology 1-7.

Iqbal MA (2019). Nano-fertilizers for sustainable crop production under changing climate: a global perspective. Sustainable Crop Production 8:1-13.

Jaouadi R, Cardoso SM, Silva AM, Yahia IBH, Boussaid M, Zaouali Y (2018). Variation of phenolic constituents of Tunisian Thymus capitatus (L.) Hoff. et Link. populations. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 77:10-15.

Jugran AK, Bahukhandi A, Dhyani P, Bhatt ID, Rawal RS, Nandi SK (2016). Impact of altitudes and habitats on valerenic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and antioxidant activity of Valeriana jatamansi. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 179(6):911-926.

McDonald S, Prenzler PD, Antolovich M, Robards K (2001). Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of olive extracts. Food Chemistry 73(1):73-84.

Monschein M, Jaindl K, Buzimkić S, Bucar F (2015). Content of phenolic compounds in wild populations of Epilobium angustifolium growing at different altitudes. Pharmaceutical Biology 53(11):1576-1582.

Nogués S, Baker NR (2000). Effects of drought on photosynthesis in Mediterranean plants grown under enhanced UV‐B radiation. Journal of Experimental Botany 51(348):1309-1317.

Pandey G, Khatoon S, Pandey MM, Rawat AKS (2018). Altitudinal variation of berberine, total phenolics and flavonoid content in Thalictrum foliolosum and their correlation with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine 9(3):169-176.

Pandurangan B, Philomina D (2010). Effect of nutritional factors and precursors on formation of colchicine in Gloriosa superba in vitro. Research in Biotechnology.

Payyavula RS, Shakya R, Sengoda VG, Munyaneza JE, Swamy P, Navarre DA (2015). Synthesis and regulation of chlorogenic acid in potato: Rerouting phenylpropanoid flux in HQT‐silenced lines. Plant Biotechnology Journal 13(4):551-564.

Pouyanfar E, Hadian J, Akbarzade M, Hatami M, Kanani MR, Ghorbanpour M (2018). Analysis of phytochemical and morphological variability in different wild-and agro-ecotypic populations of Melissa officinalis L. growing in northern habitats of Iran. Industrial Crops and Products 112:262-273.

Salehi B, Sharifi-Rad J, Cappellini F, Reiner Ž, Zorzan D, Imran M, Maroyi A (2020). The therapeutic potential of anthocyanins: current approaches based on their molecular mechanism of action. Frontiers in Pharmacology 1300.

Senizza B, Rocchetti G, Okur MA, Zengin G, Yıldıztugay E, Ak G, ... Lucini L (2020). Phytochemical profile and biological properties of Colchicum triphyllum (meadow saffron). Foods 9(4):457.

Tsozué D, Nghonda JP, Tematio P, Basga SD (2019). Changes in soil properties and soil organic carbon stocks along an elevation gradient at Mount Bambouto, Central Africa. Catena 175:251-262.

Turner SD, Ellison SL, Senalik DA, Simon PW, Spalding EP, Miller ND (2018). An automated image analysis pipeline enables genetic studies of shoot and root morphology in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Frontiers in Plant Science 9:1703.

Wu CS, Gao QH, Kjelgren RK, Guo XD, Wang M (2013). Yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of Ziziphus jujube Mill. in response to different fertilization treatments. Molecules 18(10):12029-12040.

Zheng L, Van Labeke MC (2017). Chrysanthemum morphology, photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidant capacity are differentially modified by light quality. Journal of Plant Physiology 213:66-74.



How to Cite

BABAIE NAEIJ, M., PEYVANDI, M., ABBASPOUR, H., NOORMOHAMMADI, Z., & ARBABIAN, S. (2023). Responses of Colchicum speciosum L. populations to conventional and nano-fertilizers of nitrogen through changes in morphological and biochemical attributes. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 51(1), 12827.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha51112827